MLB Outcomes Rigged By $$, Media, Egos & Influence

MLB Stadium

HOW BASEBALL ‘SCOUTS,’ FANS, HISTORY & PLAYER-HOPEFULS PAY THE PRICE … By Matt Helke & Mark Clayton – Editors, SPORTSzines ———- 

How dare we make such outrageous claims? And how, you may wonder, would we come to such confrontational conclusions?

Truthfully, it is easy to explain. Just ask the team owners, and the baseball statistical and SABERmetic and other game analytical specialists, and the MLB team general managers, and the MLB Administrators, and team bankers and accountants and CFOs, they had a hand in the overall MLB illusion whereby they offer monopolized, price-fixed baseball tickets to a buying general public whom expect an honest and fair experience that falls short. And where did that industry go afoul? Keep reading and you will not be surprised to learn the reason ticket prices and baseball player incomes and the incomes of all top fifteen-percent of baseball industry participants have exploded into the stratosphere and beyond. In many ways it is money that brings us here; as baseball profits pile up to become literal tons of money. And in the process of making all that cash, and supposedly “improving the game,” the actions outlined below end up to dilute the value of the game itself, its rules, its personnel, and even the time-honored ceremony of stepping out onto the field to play; to a point where illusions created within the minds of fans, when it begins to be peeled back, becomes like a stinky onion, each layer laid bare, now soured, a modern version of a once great summer past-time revealed to be an overt game of greed and controlled outcomes. Where money, and not the spirit of baseball, percolates slowly throughout the industry, over decades – even to the point it manipulates fanatical baseball game lovers themselves, whose ‘love of the game’ becomes little more than smoke and mirror tricks by club owners , juxtapositions of numbers and personalities, and industry psych influences – as loud, in-stadium sound systems blast, and busy, bright video board systems attack visitors visually, delivering a general beer-like fog or soft-drink sugar high or hot-dog nitrate hangover to deliberately create social engagement that morphs into focused mental/emotional messages; or as Thomas van Schaik, writer for sporstnetworker.com testifies:  “… stadium sports organizations aim to strengthen this process, with the placement of mirrors, video cameras & public screens …” which, in a sense, hypnotizes attendees to revel in messages offered by club marketers and other invested entities. When sports fans’ emotions and thoughts get tweaked by psych-experts, stadium effects are lasting. Or as basketball’s Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban admits, when he speaks of how he mentally manipulates his team’s fans: “We don’t sell the game; we sell unique, emotional experiences.” That is how the ‘participants’ mentioned above changed the game of baseball.

 

Baseball Scouts

Baseball Scouts

 

HOW LOVE OF $$$ & ANALYTICS RUINED CAREERS OF GREAT ‘SCOUTS’

 

From the early roots of the professional game of baseball, scouts were used to identify sharp witted, skilled ball players; and most scouts at the time had permission to sign talented players ‘on the spot.’ Such illustrious baseball scouts include Cy Slapnicka, Charlie Wagner, Roger Jongewaard, Bob Harrison, George Genovese, Tony Lucadello, Mike Larson, and Pat Gillick, to name just a few of the scouts who identified young players that later make it into the Baseball Hall Of Fame. As time progressed, when special skilled baseball performers where found, they would usually be appraised by those expert-eyed scouts, reports written up to describe skills and temperaments of prospective players, then a player may be selectively referred to the “front office,” where talented player hopefuls may be further analyzed one-by-one by the club owner or team manager. And if they agreed with the scout an offer to join the team may be made. But that was a time when the scout’s opinion mattered.

 

In the past, before ‘sports analytics’ helped change the game, the opinion of the scout was powerful. “I sat down on an automobile bumper and sat there for six innings. It must have been an uncomfortable seat, but I never noticed. All I knew was I was looking at an arm the likes of which you see only once in a lifetime,” reports Cy Slapnicka, on scouting honored pitcher Bob Feller in 1935, who was still a young man playing high school baseball. Back then a scout was relied upon to have a well-honed knack for eyeing baseball skills. As stated by the National Baseball Hall of Fame: “Containing blank contracts, expense reports and his itinerary, a scout’s briefcase serves as his traveling office. As with Boston Red Sox’s “Broadway” Charlie Wagner, who used his briefcase in that same way during his 60-year scouting career that began in 1947. In appreciation for their work in building the club, Wagner and the rest of the Red Sox scouts received 2004 World Championship rings.” The Hall Of Fame tells a continuing tale of that same Cy Slapnicka, who when “… scouting in Iowa for the Indians in 1935, Cy was alerted to a local high school pitcher (Feller). Amazed at the boy’s ability, Slapnicka grabbed a piece of hotel stationery and on the back hand-wrote a minor league contract with a $1 signing bonus and an autographed baseball. A year later, without ever playing in the minors, Bob Feller fanned 15 major leaguers in his first professional start, beginning his journey to the Hall of Fame.” As contrasted to a ‘scout’ story, which the Hall of Fame confirms, about how Ohio’s Vic Janowicz, a college sports trophy winner, after graduating, and on recommendation by a team scout, signed to play baseball with the Pittsburgh Pirates. Because he received a large bonus, Janowicz had to stay in the majors, where baseball league ‘front office’ rules and team General Manager’s decisions were to allow established baseball star players to have first-right to play ‘on field,’ so Janowicz rode the Pirate’s bench for two long years. Out of frustration, he left baseball to play football for the equally famous Washington Redskins, where he became an immediate sensation. Janowicz was just one more example of many rising baseball stars that, unlike Bob Feller, and because of baseball league and team administrative policies, were prevented from receiving instruction and practice they needed to expand their baseball skills.

Baseball scouts have a unique view which they put to work appraising talent. They do it usually after being involved for many years in professional baseball, often performing first as ball players themselves. In 1987, Seattle Mariners scouts pegged speedy high school senior Ken Griffey Jr. as one of the country’s top prospects; owner George Argyros wanted college pitcher Mike Harkey. When Seattle scouting Director Roger Jongewaard and baseball team Operations executive Bob Harrison, who had been a scout himself, both supported Griffey, Argyros noted that if Griffey failed, they would both be looking for work. Turns out … Jongewaard and Harrison kept their jobs.

Sports Analytics

Despite the clear advantages of having seasoned baseball scouts out on the road analyzing talent, nowadays team Managers and owners and Front Office Administrators across the MLB landscape, have slashed the ranks of trained scouts, even as they sink millions of dollars into baseball statistical analytics, and SABERmetrics, and clever personality “makeups,” trying to replace game-proven instinct with dry numbers and personality profiles. The sort of analytics spoken of here are stated using a unique language of strange acronyms like: Base runs (BsR), Batting average on balls in play (BABIP), Defense independent pitching statistics (DIPS), Defense-Independent ERA, Defense-Independent Component ERA, Fielding independent pitching (FIP), Expected FIP (xFIP), Defensive Runs Saved (DRS), Equivalent average (EQA), Late-inning pressure situations (LIPS), Log5, NERD, On-base plus slugging (OPS), PECOTA (Player empirical comparison and optimization test algorithm), Peripheral ERA (PERA), Pythagorean expectation, and dozens of other sometimes worthwhile analytics. As Patrick Harrel of princetonsportsanalytics.com tells the story, “… after the 2005 season when the Houston Astros made it to the World Series, in 2006 the Astro’s management decided to use analytics to try to enhance overall team performance so they could take the Astros to the playoffs again. The results were they spent $13 million on Woody Williams and $100 million on Carlos Lee. Consequently, Williams was released in spring training the following year; and the costs associated with signing Carlos Lee hamstrung the Astros payroll for the next six seasons, assisting the Astros to bottom-out to become the worst team in baseball for three seasons in a row.”

Scouts do not acquire talent, they recommend ‘players.’ If a good player with a ‘great future’ does not fit the current “in vogue” MLB league-wide accepted analytics, they do not get a look from team decision-makers. Team Managers and owners search out low hanging fruit – baseball ‘window dressing’ – not actual in-the-rough ‘players’ with fabulous near-future performance potential that may require some initial work, attention and select practice to become the star that a scout’s eye and instinct has already identified. The pitcher that throws 90mph but has movement on both their 2 and 4 seam fastballs and a slider and change-up will not get a look by those already mentioned decision-makers these days, even if that player’s statistics prove past-performance which clearly heralds effective future-performance; and  shows consistent improving numbers and an attitude to excel.

Strike Zone

No, for better or for worse, decision-makers look for the pitcher who can throw 95+mph. And yet, in the MLB, even lofty decision-makers know that a professionally trained baseball batter can and will hit 95-100mph fast balls. Pitching is not about throwing hard. It is about the pitchers ability of strategic movement, intelligence to know where to throw the pitch, and accuracy to throw there. What they say in real-estate is true for pitchers, too: “location, location, location.” A pitcher will not strike out every batter – good pitchers know that and throws pitches that he wants the batters to hit (ground balls, pop ups, etc.). Just like Greg Maddux, who, as gammonsdaily.com defines,”… relied on his command, composure, and guile to outwit hitters. Though his fastball touched 93 mph in his early years, his velocity steadily declined throughout his career, and was never his principal focus as a pitcher. By the end of his career, his fastball averaged less than 86 mph. Yet despite possessing statistics that would not have landed him so much as a minor league deal now, the then-42-year-old triumphed over the radar gun by stealing strikes on pitches thrown just outside of the strike zone, avoiding the fat part of the plate, and generating bushels of ground balls …” – thereby controlling the outcome of the game by not attempting fruitlessly to power through it.

Baseball Scout Strategies

Baseball Scout Strategies

For scouts to get that type of pitcher, it often requires more than one agent to qualify a single player, and they have to coordinate, and actually work out on the practice field, and at games, to deduce a pitcher’s talents based on the scout’s personal experiences and know-how and on-site note-taking, and not just analytics. Otherwise that’s a lot of distracting numbers and acronyms for scouts to unnecessarily have to crunch and then apply arbitrarily. But, “Hey!” – is that not what they are paid to do by the ‘front-office?’ To find the right low hanging fruit whose personality matches the approved and perfect “personality makeup” profile, and whose performance analytics meet criteria ‘front-office’ and MLB teams seek? “Birds of a feather flock together,” so to speak? Maybe so, but it is that very expectation of supposed antiquated 20th century scouting behaviors that makes it easy for owners to release from employment their team scouts; thereafter replacing scouts with analytics-based number crunchers. So many baseball scouts have been replaced, in fact – says the Major League Baseball Scouting Bureau, which once employed near 100 scouts – the bureau has been stripped down to only 17 scouts, and getting smaller. With scouts advised to look elsewhere for employment. The bureau is not closing down, contrary to industry rumors, but director Bill Bavasi acknowledged to Bob Nightingale of USA TODAY Sports: “… drastic changes are being made. The bureau will now focus on providing video and medical information on players,” and thereby avert attention to international players – who are not required to meet the same draft rules as American players. International players now being seen by many in the industry as the new 21st century ‘low hanging fruit.’

International Baseball

Puerto Rican Baseball Team Favorites

 

It’s just a terrible time for scouts,’’ said Dennis Gilbert, chairman of the ‘Professional Baseball Scouts Foundation.’ “I’m getting 15 to 20 calls a week from scouts who don’t have jobs. It’s really been difficult for the older scouts. By example, USA Today reports too that: “Joe McIlvaine, the acclaimed two-time general manager who has been employed in professional baseball for 46 years as an executive or scout, suddenly can’t get a job. Jeff Wren, 51, who has worked his entire adult life as a scout, is coming to the painful realization that he has no choice but to seek employment outside of baseball. Baseball’s close-knit scouting fraternity has been besieged by wholesale layoffs this winter, with many pro scouts still unemployed one month before the start of spring training. Never before has the ‘Professional Baseball Scouts Foundation’ received so many formal applications for financial assistance, with 20 scouts alone seeking help since October.”

baseball-scouts-2

The main reason cited by team owners for baseball-scout layoffs is monetary. To save cash. But that makes no sense. As compared to the top fifteen-percent of league earners the pay allotted to scouts is anemic, almost negligible. Baseball watch-dog Nicholas Saint confirms:  “I can’t speak to the exact salary, but I do know that it is very little in baseball terms, probably in the mid to high 5 figures. I’ve seen unsourced claims on the tubes that entry salaries are as low as $30,000, and that the seasoned veterans make $60,000-$80,000. I can’t speak to the low end at all, but the high end can’t be all that far off. As a rough signpost, note that Damon Oppenheimer, the Scouting Director for the New York Yankees, makes $230,000. At the top of the scouting ladder for the richest team, he is doing as well as you can in that racket. Below him are regional scouting directors before you get to actual regular-Joe Scouts.”

Baseball-Draft

HOW THE MLB DRAFT UNDERMINES GREAT U.S. PLAYERS!

 

There is a rumor going around that the MLB created its annual amateur draft-system as “…a way to promote competitive balance.” Probably in the same way Russian President Putin explained his illegal (and deadly) incursion into the Ukraine as a ‘political balance’ its residents desired … when they did not. Reporter Rany Jazayerlig at Grantland.com makes the MLB’s true motives crystal clear when he made the following comments: “When the draft was created, Major League Baseball wasn’t concerned so much with extending a hand to the downtrodden teams, but with cutting costs for all of them. There it is again, a focus of profits above accessing a best-players-for-the-game scenario. Profit is a fine goal, if it does not denigrate the very business (or sport) it is meant to support, nor insult fans while doing it. MLB and its club owners never forget that their business is not a game whatsoever, but a business whose outcomes they control. Rany also added this related accurate comment: “Baseball teams had been trying to lower expenses on player acquisitions for decades before the draft was instituted. These were the days of the ‘reserve clause,’ a prettied-up term for indentured servitude, when a team owns the rights to a ballplayer from the moment he signs until the moment he retires, and sometimes even after that. The decision to sign his first professional contract represents the only time a player has any real leverage.” How is it possible that MLB team owners can hamstring a player’s career in such a way? Could it be owners see a player’s strong desire to play the sport as a career weakness? A weakness they exploit as ‘leverage’ against each newbie player? Owners knowing that of hundreds-of-thousands of ball player hopefuls, only mere hundreds will see that dream come true – and then only if players picked are seen by owners as ‘low hanging fruit.’

 

One writer on answers.com put the dilemma this way: “The amateur draft process is full of rules that no one follows, and rules of that nature have a tendency to be selectively applied as a means of oppression or retribution. MLB rules state that players are not technically allowed to speak with teams about signing bonuses prior to the draft, but … that process is routine and often a key element in shaping a team’s draft strategy.” Further, there is a MLB recruit model that operates now that would negate the MLB draft as it relates to U.S. players, as that model abides by very different rules, where amateur players can negotiate with all MLB teams at the same time and no penalties apply. However, that system is not available to U.S. based MLB draft hopefuls; or as Rany Jazayerlig puts it, “The irony is that Major League Baseball already has this system in place — a system in which teams are allowed to sign any amateur player they want within the constraints of a bonus cap, and the players are allowed to sign with any team they want. It’s just that this system applies only to international talent.” What a devilish and deliberate slam to U.S. ball players trying to get a gig with a MLB team!

 

To make it worse, some say “homage hires” also contribute to prevent serious amateur ball players from getting a chance within the MLB, and that that practice has been thinning the overall skill levels of MLB team rosters for many years. Homage hires is a term to define an MLB draft choice who is picked based primarily on their name as it relates to their father’s career in baseball, rather than on sheer baseball skills. Not long ago two college football players were drafted simply because of their names. CBS Sports writer Matt Snyder rudely reveled in the irony when he wrote:

Matt Snyder

CBS Sports Writer

…………………………………

“The Seattle Mariners just drafted a player who doesn’t play baseball, but it makes for a fun story. A heartwarming one, even, should one love Ken Griffey Jr. and the Mariners.

The Mariners 24th round draft pick: Trey Griffey.

Now, Trey doesn’t play baseball. He’s a football player for the University of Arizona.

Well, he was taken in Round 24, which is the number Griffey wore with the Mariners for 13 seasons. That number will be officially retired by the Mariners on Aug. 6, making him the first Mariners player to have his number retired (42 for Jackie Robinson is retired league-wide, and this was previously the only retired number for the Mariners).

Further, (Ken) Griffey will be enshrined into the Baseball Hall of Fame on July 24 as the first player ever to have a Mariners cap in his plaque.

So while some would view this as a wasted draft pick, it is anything but.

Fun selection by Jerry Dipoto and crew.”

…………………………….

Trey Griffey of the Arizona Wildcats son of Ken Griffey Jr

Football Player Trey Griffey

 

Griffey hasn’t played baseball at all since High School. So, was that a “Fun selection,” a “fun story,” or a un-heartwarming draft choice, that represents yet another unnecessary and extra-high hurdle that American amateur ball players must jump in order to be chosen for the MLB draft – after already contending with deliberate international player advantages? When is too much simply too much? And does that add good, soon to be great, ball players to rosters of American teams, or does it reduce up-and-coming, skilled players from participating? To add strong vinegar to the sting of that answer, please recollect how Torii Hunter Jr. – son of Twins outfielder Torii Hunter – was drafted in the 23th round of picks by the Minnesota Twins, his father’s team. Jamal Collier, who reports for MLB.com itself, comments thus in February 2015: “…now a sophomore wide receiver (playing football) at Notre Dame, (Torii Hunter Jr.) had not played the sport (of baseball) competitively since his junior year of high school.” Like Trey Griffey, Torii too, plays college football as his preferred sport, as he also dabbles with baseball at Notre Dame. Notre Dame baseball coach Mik Aoki said in a statement: (see article written in Feb 2015 http://m.mlb.com/news/article/109307038/torii-hunter-jr-set-to-play-baseball-and-football-for-notre-dame/) Torii wanted to play baseball again, and we had some roster space, so we wanted to see where this could go. People will need to have a little bit of patience. This is a kid that, between his focus on football and a catastrophic injury as a senior in high school, hadn’t touched a bat in three years prior to the last few weeks. He needs a little bit of time to see where this might be able to lead him.”  And what are his resulting, non-draft-able baseball numbers there (see http://www.und.com/sports/m-basebl/stats/2015-2016/teamcume.html – his 2014 freshman season he did not play baseball) over the two years, his sophomore and junior years on the Notre Dame Baseball team, Notre Dame played 114 baseball games, Torii played in just 23 career games out of a possible 114 – with only 1 start in two seasons; he totaled 2 hits; 1 RBI; 2 total bases; 2 walks; 2 stolen bases (out of 2 chances); Torii had only 14 plate appearances with 7 strikeouts; Slug % of 0.162; OBP of 0.286; and a career batting average of just 0.167. These numbers are not even close to draft-able – still, he was drafted by an MLB team.  And to increase the ‘sting’ that his ‘homage-hire’ created for quite a number of hard working MLB draft hopefuls,  people say Torii carried into the Twin’s locker room and press conference rooms another trait too – a dis-respectable aggression. As evidenced by an incident at the press conference meant to inaugurate his draft status with the Twins, when after a question was asked by a reporter – a question Torii did not appreciate – Torii’s true sense of elite entitlement emerged publicly as he rudely called that reporter a “prick.” Even Twinsdaily.com writer nicksaviking had the following observation to make about Torii’s reactionary behaviors: “Well, it is news-worthy. Hunter was “officially” a Minnesota Twin for all of 15 minutes before he called a beat writer a prick.”

Football Player Torii Hunter

Image: Gary A. Vasquez-USA TODAY Sports

Image: Gary A. Vasquez-USA TODAY Sports

 

While league approved homage hires will likely not cease to occur, ten-plus years ago David Rawnsley, as reporter for Baseball America, suggested a new approach to the MLB amateur draft, an idea that makes common-sense of the issues and is fair to club owners and to all players, international and otherwise. Rany Jazayerlig describes Rawnsley’s model best:

1. Assign every team a spending cap.

 (This limits costs, which will please owners.)

2. Allot the spending cap for each team based on where

they finished in the standings the year before, allowing

worst teams to spend more in the draft than best teams.

(This helps maintain competitive balance.)

3. Let the free market reign.”

 

Simple. Fair. Equitable. Why is it not that way now? Because owners want a controlled outcome; not necessarily the team’s best ‘on field’ outcome, that is more of a hope for many team Managers and owners. Control of team members is the real goal, as logic strongly suggests, because financial analytics greatly influence profit projections. Otherwise, why would the MLB create and continue such convoluted amateur draft rules, and apply them selectively? Reminds us of IRS tax rules, known to be designed to confuse voters, so politicians and big-pocket corporate donors can – as much as possible – influence legislature-outcomes and political seat campaign results. Sound familiar? Do not be confused, ask yourself this: “What do MLB club owners operate?” For-profit corporations.

BABE RUTH

BABE RUTH

Recently someone reminded a few baseball enthusiasts who were chatting about out-of-control salaries for MLB players and Managers and owners and the ironic barriers set in place to hinder fabulous draft-pick hopefuls who have great baseball skills (and who nonetheless yearn emptyhandedly for MLB participation), about Babe Ruth, the “Great Bambino,” arguably considered to be the best player ever in the history of baseball, and about his salary, which for his times, reached the then astronomical level of $80,000 dollars annually. That income equates to only a little over $1,000,000 in today’s cash. If the ‘Big Bambino’ – the best player ever – was thoroughly content financially with that level of pay – and he was – then why not adjust down the out-of-control salaries and bonuses paid today to modern MLB players? As well as the hugely successful and ‘controlled outcomes’ of profits for team owners? Remember, those profits are paid for by the attentions of the very fans that created the sensation of professional baseball. And fans who still buy the monopolized, over-priced stadium tickets. And the same fans who watch the expensive baseball game advertising on T.V. or through new-media. Only to see too many low hanging fruit players; or athletes from other sports who happen to have the right last name, or managed to fit a convoluted analytic or personality “make-up” profile. And maybe it is time to also remove impediments to American ball players, to level-the-playing-field so the best American players can participate, too? And by the way, as club owners reduce those usury ticket prices, do the same for insulting costs of a simple hot dog with mustard, or over-priced soft-drinks, and remove the ridiculous cost of parking a, willing-to-make-the-drive, fan’s vehicle, and likewise drop the price of souvenirs so children of grown fans can remember the event fondly, and not as a “we can’t really afford to go, but we’ll make do somehow” stressful family-choice experience. Make the game equally accessible to a huge new group of athletes and audiences so they can push baseball into the next century; because without those factors in place and obstacles removed – as Tony Soprano or one of his henchmen might say about baseball in an upcoming 22nd century … “Fuhgeddaboudit!

 

Now, readers and baseball activity participants, can it finally be time to ethically and honestly — “Play Ball?”

 


 

Sources & Keywords:

http://grantland.com/features/the-mlb-draft-work-quite-possibly-immoral-replace-it/

http://www.answers.com/article/1207642/the-astros-brady-aiken-situation-highlights-mlbs-draft-issues

Why Major League Baseball Needs an International Player Draft

http://www.cbssports.com/mlb/news/mariners-pay-homage-to-ken-griffey-jr-with-their-24th-round-draft-pick/

http://m.mlb.com/news/article/109307038/torii-hunter-jr-set-to-play-baseball-and-football-for-notre-dame

http://twinsdaily.com/topic/16146-torii-hunter-calls-reporter-a-prick-at-press-conference/page-3

Torii Hunter Jr. Selected by Los Angeles Angels in 2016 MLB Draft

http://scouts.baseballhall.org/history2

http://www.sportsnetworker.com/2012/02/15/the-psychology-of-sports-fans-what-makes-them-so-crazy

https://princetonsportsanalytics.com/tag/baseball-2/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabermetrics

http://m.mlb.com/news/article/11532374

http://www.2createabaseballplayer.com/independent-baseball-league.html

How Greg Maddux dominated with mid-80’S heat

http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/columnist/bob-nightengale/2016/01/14/mlb-scouts-s-getting-harder-avoid-force-out/78803500

https://www.quora.com/How-much-is-a-MLB-scout-paid-on-average

https://theringer.com/the-curious-fans-guide-to-the-2016-mlb-draft-f9562108fc59#.t7ivcokkt

http://nypost.com/2016/06/08/how-jersey-high-schoolers-mlb-draft-dream-became-nightmare

https://www.bostonglobe.com/sports/redsox/2016/06/11/questions-loom-over-red-sox-top-draft-pick/aCIT2kav8iuobCoc0WggCN/story.html

http://www.answers.com/article/1207642/the-astros-brady-aiken-situation-highlights-mlbs-draft-issues

http://www.cbssports.com/mlb/news/mariners-pay-homage-to-ken-griffey-jr-with-their-24th-round-draft-pick

http://m.mlb.com/news/article/109307038/torii-hunter-jr-set-to-play-baseball-and-football-for-notre-dame

http://twinsdaily.com/topic/16146-torii-hunter-calls-reporter-a-prick-at-press-conference/page-3

Torii Hunter Jr. Selected by Los Angeles Angels in 2016 MLB Draft

 

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